How Are Digital SLRs Different To Compact Digital Cameras?
A DSLR is more versatile than a standard, "point-and-shoot" compact camera. You can focus manually, adjust light settings (ISO, shutter speed and aperture), change lenses, and create great effects with accessories like external flashes, light filters and tripods. DSLRs also have larger image sensors. This means more detail and contrast from your images.
How Does A DSLR Camera Store Photos?
Just like digital compacts, digital SLR cameras store photos on memory cards:
- Compact Flash Cards (CFC).
- Secure Digital (SD and SDHC).
- Memory Stick.
- Some cameras have internal memory.
- Storage capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB).
DSLR Features To Understand
Shutter speed: Look for the widest range of shutter speeds possible. Slow shutter speeds let you take photos at night without a flash (long exposure). Faster shutter speeds are used to take focused shots of moving objects like athletes, cars and animals.
Aperture (f-stops): By changing the aperture (the opening through which light travels), you can brighten or darken an image without changing shutter speed. Changing aperture also changes depth of focus – e.g. create a blurry background (shallow focus range).
White balance: Adjusting the white balance lets you make colours more natural – helpful when shooting under artificial light, like fluorescent globes.
Which Lenses Should I Consider?
One big advantage of DSLRs in digital photography is the option of changing the lens. Lenses are measured by their focal length (zoom) in millimetres. Keep in mind that fixed-length lenses cannot zoom in or out. Popular lenses include:
- Fixed-length: A lens of 80mm brings the photo subject "closer", while 50mm is a similar perspective to the human eye.
- Wide angle: Great for capturing detail in close-ups and for taking landscape shots.
- Zoom lenses: The focal length can be varied, which lets you zoom in closer to objects. Zoom lenses are measured by their range, e.g. 55 to 200mm.
- Macro lenses: Unlike other lenses, macro lenses are able to focus on objects that are extremely close to the lens.
What Does An External Flash Do?
The built-in (pop-up) flash on the average DSLR is fine for party photos, but an external flash can ensure better shots when used correctly. It attaches to the camera with a connector called a "hot shoe". External flash units:
- Eliminate red-eye.
- Are more powerful than pop-up flash.
- Offer more control over light levels (light can be angled or bounced for 'softer' light etc).
What's An Image Stabiliser?
Image stabilisers are internal components or functions which prevent blurred images. Some digital SLR cameras have an image stabiliser built into the camera body, while other manufacturers build image stabilisers into their lenses.
Extra Features To Look Out For
- Shooting modes: Choose different shooting modes for pre-programmed settings, which compensate for night shots, portraits, landscape, indoors, and cloudy days etc.
- Video: Capture video in HD or SD.
- Smile/face detection: Detects faces and automatically focuses on them. Also used for automatic timers.
- LCD viewing: Some cameras allow Live View, which means you can compose a photo on the LCD screen instead of the viewfinder.
- Continuous shooting: The more Frames Per Second (FPS) your camera can take, the better it is suited to action photography.
What Accessories Should I Consider?
- Tripod: Levels and stabilises the camera, for long exposure shots and portraits.
- Memory cards: Always have at least one spare memory card.
- Batteries: Spares are crucial.
- External flash: For photography in low levels of light.
- Camera bag: Protects your camera equipment with separate storage compartments.
Beginners: If you want to snap parties and holidays, choose an easy-to-use and versatile package.
- Size: Make sure the camera body is light, especially if you're travelling.
- Lens: Choose one or two zoom lenses, like an 18 to 55mm and a 75 to 300mm.
- HD video: This will save you carrying around a separate video camera.
Sports and Action: Take great action shots of the kids playing sport, or shoot car racing.
- Lens: Get a good zoom lens, e.g. 70 to 200mm.
- Fast: Look for fast shutter speeds, fast auto focusing and continuous shooting modes.
- ISO: ISO settings adjust the camera's light sensitivity. Action and low light photos work best with high ISO settings.
Portraits: Take great portraits of the family and pets with equipment that maximises close details.
- Lenses: Look for large aperture lenses, e.g. f/2.8. A focal length of 85mm or 135mm lens is great for beginners.
- Megapixels: Printing photos to a poster size requires a higher megapixel count.
- Extras: External flash and a tripod.
Simple Digital SLR Choices
- Speeds: Look for a wide range of shutter speeds and high ISO settings, for great results in a range of light conditions.
- Lens: An advantage of DSLRs is the option of changing the lens for different effects and to vary the zoom.
- Flash: Built-in flash is fine for party photos; an external (hot shoe) flash can produce better results.